Learning English in a Colossal Scale to Understand Text of Every Type Comes By Wide and Attentive Reading With an Intimacy with Vocabulary of every type
PARTS OF SPEECH
2. Noun:a word used as name of a thing, person or place e.g.Pen, Jonah and Egypt.
3. Pronoun:a word used instead of a noun.
4. Adjective: a used to add something in the meaning of nown or pronoun e.g.She is cute girl. This short story is very interesting.
5. Verb:a word used to express an action of state e.g. The boy wrote a letter to his cousin. London is a big city. Gold and silver are very costly metals.
6. Adverb:A word used to add meaning to some verb, adjective or even an adverb e.g. Elephant is running fast. Water is very hot. Panther is running very fast.
7. Preposition:A word used with a noun or pronoun to show how the person or thing indicated by the noun or pronoun stands in relation to something else e.g.There is buffalo in the field. A cat is sitting under the table.
8. Conjunctions:A word used to join words or sentences. Romeo and Juliet were lovers of other. He ran fast but missed the bus.
9. Interjections:A word that expresses some sudden feeling e.g. Hurrah! we have won the match. He said “Alas! I am undone”.
FIGURES OF SPEECH
1. Simile:A simile is a comparison made between two different kinds of object but they at least one common point. The words: like or as are used with it e.g. A child is like a flower.
2. Metaphor: A metaphor is an implied simile. Here, a thing is not likened with another. On the other hand an object is stated is the same as the other object e.g. Camel is a ship of the desert.
3. Personification: Lifeless objects are stated as having life and identity e.g. Death lays his icy hands even on kings.
4. Apostrophe: An apostrophe is a direct address to a dead person, or an absent person or any abstract notion or idea. This figure is special form of personification e.g. O liberty! what crime have been committed in your name?
5. Hyperbole: In hyperbole a statement is made effective by exaggeration e.g. I loved Ophelia; forty thousand brothers/Could not with all their quantity of love.
6. Euphemism:Expressing disagreeable facts with some soft and agreeable name is called Euphemism e.g. He is asleep (he is dead).
7. Antithesis:Striking opposition or contrast of words is made in the same sentence for the purpose of emphasis e.g.Give every man your ear, but few your voice.
8. Oxymoron:A special form of antithesis where two contradictory qualities are predicted at once of the same thing e.g. She accepted it as the kind cruelty of surgeons’s knife.
9. Epigram:A terse and telling saying introducing antithetical ideas which excite surprise and get the attention riveted.
10.Irony: A mode of speech where targeted implication is exactly opposite of literal expression e.g.No doubt but you are the people, and wisdom will die with you.
11. Pun:Aim in view being having a ridiculous effect through use of such a word implying more than one meaning e.g. An ambassador is an honest man who lies abroad for the good of his country.
12. Metonymy: An object is renamed with an object which is strongly associated with it e.g. The laurel for Success.
13. Synecdoche: A part is used to name a whole or whole is used to designate a part e.g.Give us the day our daily bread.Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown.
14. Transferred Epithet:An epithet is transferred from its proper word to another that is closely associated with it in the sentence e.g. he passed a sleepless night.
15. Litotes: An affirmative is conveyed by negation of the opposite e.g. i am not a little surprised.
16. Interrogation:Asking of a question not for the sake of getting an answer, but to put a point more effectively, e.g.Who is here so vile that will not love his country?
17. Exclamation:An exclamatory form is used to draw greater attention to a point than a plain statement could do.What is piece work is man!
18. Climax:Climax is an arrangement of a series of ideas in an order of increasing importance, e.g. What is piece work is man! How noble in reason! How infinite in faculties! In action, how like an angle! In apprehension, how like a God!
19. Anticlimax:Anticlimax is the opposite of climax. It is a sudden descent from from higher to lower level. The purpose is secure a satirical or ridiculing effect.
1. A Communicative Crammer of English by Geoffrey Leech and Jan Svartvik