Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1835-1908) wrote a book titled “Minan-ul-Rahman” to Prove that Arabic is the Mother of all languages. He Challenged All the Opponents.
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiani, Founder of Ahmadiyya Community in Islam (1835-1908) wrote a book titled “Minnan-ul-Rehman” meaning Benedictions of Allah.
In this book he claimed that Arabic is the Mother of all languages. He pointed out certain qualities of Arabic language that are not found in other languages. He challnged the adversaries of his claim to come to the front to falisify his claim by arguments. He was especially targetting Mx Muller (1823-1900) to come forward and meet his challenge.
He claimed that single letters of alphabet have meaning:
فِ (fi) ‘Be faithful’
قِ (qi) ‘Keep an eye on’
لِ (li) ‘Come nearer’
عِ (‘I) ‘Call to mind’
اِ (I) ‘Promise’
خِ (Khe) ‘Go, neither slowly nor fast, but with rather moderate pace’
ہِ (hi) ‘Burst thyself, or become weak’
دِ (di) ‘Pay blood-money’
رِ (ri) ‘Flare up, become brighter, or come out of the fireplace.’ or ‘Become dirty’
شِ (shi) ‘Paint thy garments with patterns ‘
نِ (ni) ‘Be slow or lazy’
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad also explains sometimes even small single words give extensive meanings: e.g.
عرضتُ (araztu) means: “I have roamed about Makkah, Madina, and all the habitations around them.”
طہفلتُ (Tahfaltu) means: “I eat and have determined always to eat Millet bread .”
جثمَ (Jasama) means: “Half the night has passed”.
حیعلَ (Haya-al) means: “Come; Pray! It is proper time.
FIVE POINTS OF EXCELLENCE
Ahmad highlighted Following Five points of the excellence of the Arabic language:
- 1. Arabic has a complete organised structure of roots, that is to say, the roots meet fully all the needs of human beings in the field of expression ; the other languages are not so fitted.
- 2. In Arabic, the names of the Divine Being, the names of the principal constituent parts of the universe, of plants, animals and minerals and of the members of the human body, possess, in the why and wherefore of their contents, deep philosophy and learning.
- 3. The Additions and the roots of Arabic words are perfectly organised. The scope of this organisation, by linking into one philosophical chain, all the verbs and nouns, belonging to the same root, points out their interrelationships. This is not to be found, to this degree of excellence, in other languages.
- 4. In Arabic expressions, words are few but meanings are many, that is to say, the Arabic language makes use of (ا) [alif], and (ل) [laam] and nunnation (تنوین) and the sequence of words, in such a way that to express the same meaning the other languages need a number of sentences to be linked up for the same purpose.
- 5. Arabic possesses roots and expressions which are the perfect means of portraying the most delicate and deep things of the mind and human ideas.
ARABIC FOLLOWS LAW OF NATURE
After the above Introductory details, the rest of the treatise is in a very lucid and elegant Arabic.[page 27-127] He explains that Arabic is unique to follow the patterns we observe in Nature. Following Two distinct features:
1. ‘the pre-existing’ Grace of God, like the bounties of Nature, the qualities inherent in the soil and earth, the sun and the changing weathers etc.
2. And the second aspect being human efforts, labour and endeavours, these combine to give birth to the fruit of human endeavours.
To fulfil these Two requirements,Arabic hasTwo distinct words for Mercy, Rahman [رحمان]and Raheem. [رحیم]. To explain his point, Ahmad writes:
TEN CATEGORIES OF ARABIC ROOTS Ahmad believed that Arabic was the Language of Divine Realization and designed to fulfill the Physical and Spiritual needs of man. He classified the Arabic Root-Words, into ten categories, calling them as the Ten Circles of Roots. He describes them as follows: (pp: 38-40)
1) Root-words relating to the Person of God, arguments for the existence of God, His attributes, His Names and Acts, His Practice and Custom.
2) The system of root-words relating to the Unity of God and the arguments on behalf thereof.
3) The system of root-words which deals with the attributes, acts, and actions, habits and situations, spiritual and physical, (of man) which, along with their mutual distinctions, are perpetrated by man and which may appear, in agreement with or in opposition to God’s Will.
4) The system of root-words which constitute, as facts of Divine knowledge; a perfected teaching from God Almighty and which relate to inculcations or techniques dealing with morals, beliefs, rights of God, rights of men, philosophic learning, punishments, commandments, the Do’s and Dont’s.
5) The system of root-words which expound the nature of true salvation, the true means or methods of obtaining it; the signs by which the saved believers and those who occupy a station of nearness to God may be recognized.
6) The system of root-words which explain what is Islam, what is disbelief, what is shirk or polytheistic belief and which deal forth with the arguments for the truth of Islam, and refute the objections against Islam.
7) The system of root-words which refute all the wrong beliefs of opponents.
8) The system of root-words which relate to warnings and tidings, promise of favourable or adverse happenings ; which relate to description of the hereafter, to miracles and to parables or which are of the nature of prophecies which contribute to the strengthening of one’s faith, or which relate to other expedient subjects, or which deal with narratives which are meant as a warning, a threat, or a tiding.
9) The system of root-words which relate to the life-story and chaste qualities of the Holy Prophet (May peace and blessings of God be upon him,) which consist of the high example of the pure life of the Holy Prophet ; which also partake of full and forceful arguments in support of the prophet-hood of the Holy Prophet (may peace and the blessings of God be upon him.)
10) The system of root-words which expound the beauties and the spiritual effectiveness of the Holy Quran and which set out its inherent qualities.
LANGUAGE AS THE EVOLUTION OF NAMES
How did language come into being? To quote Encyclopædia Britannica:
1. ” On the ultimate origin of language speculation has been rife, more, however, among philosophers than among philologists, who have very often been too matter-of-fact to take an interest in this problem. Some scholars (among them quite recently W. Schmidt) see the insufficiency of the usual theories, and giving up all attempts at explaining it in a natural way fall back on the religious belief that the first language was directly given to the first men by God through a miracle.” 
2. “When man was made to evolve through stages of creation ; when he was transferred from a state of potentiality to one of actuality, when he was given, in his nature and physical evolution, different shapes and figures, and some of the varieties of creation succeeded other varieties, and there happened to be mutual differences and distinctions, the process gave rise to many degrees and stages which required to be described by Names, Arabic provided them with their “names”, and thus completed its gift as is the custom of rich philanthropists.” (page 123)
A renowned Philologist Sheikh Muhammad Ahmad Mazhar (1896-1993) has contributed immensely to the work of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad and studied the various languages (around 35) and traced them to their Arabic Root-Words. The works, which trace the Arabic Roots, are the dictionary format, are easily available, can be downloaded freely by pasting the links in the browser’s address bar. Most of the work is yet unpublished and in MSS forms.
The Source of All Languages [22MB pdf] – by Muhammad Ahmad Mazhar 
Dutch and Swedish Traced to Arabic [4MB pdf] – by Muhammad Ahmad Mazhar 
Egyptian Traced to Arabic [3MB pdf] – by Muhammad Ahmad Mazhar 
English Traced to Arabic [26MB pdf] – by Muhammad Ahmad Mazhar 
Hausa Traced to Arabic [8MB pdf] – by Muhammad Ahmad Mazhar 
Italian Traced to Arabic [4MB pdf] – by Muhammad Ahmad Mazhar 
Japanese Traced to Arabic [5MB pdf] – by Muhammad Ahmad Mazhar 
Sanskrit Traced to Arabic [18MB pdf] – by Muhammad Ahmad Mazhar 
Sumerian, Akkadian, Bantu Traced to Arabic [2MB pdf] – by Muhammad Ahmad Mazhar 
Yoruba Traced to Arabic [7MB pdf] – by Muhammad Ahmad Mazhar